Advertisement

Eosinophil Extracellular Traps in the Casts of Plastic Bronchitis Associated With Influenza Virus Infection

      Plastic bronchitis (PB) is a rare pulmonary disease characterized by production of cohesive and branching casts that fill the airway.
      • Rubin B.K.
      Plastic bronchitis.
      PB is classified into two types based on differences in the mechanism of development. Lymphatic PB, sometimes called “classic,” is associated mainly with congenital heart diseases or lymphatic anomalies, in the development of which aberrant pulmonary lymphatics appear to play a major role. Nonlymphatic PB is associated mainly with respiratory diseases, in which inflammatory immune cells may play a role. We and others have reported that influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus infection causes PB, especially in patients with an allergy and/or asthma.
      • Uda K.
      • Shoji K.
      • Koyama-Wakai C.
      • et al.
      Clinical characteristics of influenza virus-induced lower respiratory infection during the 2015 to 2016 season.
      ,
      • Uchimura T.
      • Mori M.
      • Nariai A.
      • Yokota S.
      Analysis of cases of severe respiratory failure in children with influenza (H1N1) 2009 infection in Japan.
      Casts from some patients with PB due to influenza virus infection (Flu-PB) were composed of fibrin and such inflammatory immune cells as eosinophils and neutrophils.
      • Deng J.
      • Zheng Y.
      • Li C.
      • Ma Z.
      • Wang H.
      • Rubin B.K.
      Plastic bronchitis in three children associated with 2009 influenza A(H1N1) virus infection.
      These findings indicate that granulocytes, as well as an allergic status, are likely to be involved in the pathophysiologic condition of Flu-PB. However, the detailed mechanisms of how highly viscous casts are formed in patients with Flu-PB and the roles of granulocytes remain unclear.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to CHEST
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Rubin B.K.
        Plastic bronchitis.
        Clin Chest Med. 2016; 37: 405-408
        • Uda K.
        • Shoji K.
        • Koyama-Wakai C.
        • et al.
        Clinical characteristics of influenza virus-induced lower respiratory infection during the 2015 to 2016 season.
        J Infect Chemother. 2018; 24: 407-413
        • Uchimura T.
        • Mori M.
        • Nariai A.
        • Yokota S.
        Analysis of cases of severe respiratory failure in children with influenza (H1N1) 2009 infection in Japan.
        J Infect Chemother. 2012; 18: 59-65
        • Deng J.
        • Zheng Y.
        • Li C.
        • Ma Z.
        • Wang H.
        • Rubin B.K.
        Plastic bronchitis in three children associated with 2009 influenza A(H1N1) virus infection.
        Chest. 2010; 138: 1486-1488
        • Fukuchi M.
        • Miyabe Y.
        • Furutani C.
        • et al.
        How to detect eosinophil ETosis (EETosis) and extracellular traps.
        Allergol Int. 2021; 70: 19-29
        • Radermecker C.
        • Detrembleur N.
        • Guiot J.
        • et al.
        Neutrophil extracellular traps infiltrate the lung airway, interstitial, and vascular compartments in severe COVID-19.
        J Exp Med. 2020; 217
        • Ueki S.
        • Tokunaga T.
        • Melo R.C.N.
        • et al.
        Charcot-Leyden crystal formation is closely associated with eosinophil extracellular trap cell death.
        Blood. 2018; 132: 2183-2187
        • Persson E.K.
        • Verstraete K.
        • Heyndrickx I.
        • et al.
        Protein crystallization promotes type 2 immunity and is reversible by antibody treatment.
        Science. 2019; 364: eaaw4295
        • Chan L.L.Y.
        • Nicholls J.M.
        • Peiris J.S.M.
        • Lau Y.L.
        • Chan M.C.W.
        • Chan R.W.Y.
        Host DNA released by NETosis in neutrophils exposed to seasonal H1N1 and highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses.
        Respir Res. 2020; 21: 160
        • Ueki S.
        • Hebisawa A.
        • Kitani M.
        • Asano K.
        • Neves J.S.
        Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis-a luminal hypereosinophilic disease with extracellular trap cell death.
        Front Immunol. 2018; 9: 2346