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Clinical Outcomes and Health-Care Resource Use Associated With Reslizumab Treatment in Adults With Severe Eosinophilic Asthma in Real-World Practice

Published:December 14, 2020DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2020.11.060

      Background

      Reslizumab, an anti-IL-5 monoclonal antibody, is indicated as add-on maintenance treatment for adults with severe eosinophilic asthma.

      Research Question

      What are the real-world outcomes associated with reslizumab use in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma in a US clinical practice?

      Study Design and Methods

      In this retrospective study, patient-level data from adults treated with reslizumab were obtained from center- and panel-based medical chart reviews. Eligible patients had available medical records and treatment history for ≥ 6 months before initiation of reslizumab treatment (index date) to ≥ 7 months after reslizumab initiation. The primary outcome was response to reslizumab treatment, based on clinical expert predefined definitions of response. Other outcomes included clinical asthma exacerbations (CAEs), use of maintenance oral corticosteroids (OCS), FEV1 percent predicted, Asthma Control Test (ACT) score, and health-care resource use (HRU).

      Results

      Medical charts were obtained for 215 patients. Most patients (58.6%) showed an excellent response, 16.3% showed a clinically meaningful response, 21.9% showed a partial response, and 3.3% were nonresponders or treatment failures. A significant reduction was observed in the proportion of patients experiencing a CAE in a 6-month period (from 86.0% to 40.5%; P < .001) and in the mean number of CAEs per patient (2.84 [SD, 2.41] vs 0.94 [SD, 1.86]) after reslizumab initiation. Improvements were observed in FEV1 percent predicted (65.1% [SD, 20.5%] vs 73.1% [SD, 23.1%]; P < .001) and in ACT scores (13.8 [SD, 4.2] vs 18.6 [SD, 4.0]; P < .001) before to after reslizumab initiation. Among patients using maintenance OCS at baseline, more than half discontinued use of these by approximately 10 months after reslizumab initiation. Significant reductions in asthma-related HRU were observed after reslizumab initiation.

      Interpretation

      In clinical practice, reslizumab may have been initiated in response to heavy symptom burden and CAEs. Reslizumab was associated with improved clinical and patient-reported outcomes and significant reductions in asthma-related HRU.

      Key Words

      Abbreviations:

      ACT (Asthma Control Test), CAE (clinical asthma exacerbation), ER (emergency room), HRU (health-care resource use), OCS (oral corticosteroid), RCT (randomized controlled trial), RWE (real-world evidence)
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