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Acute Respiratory Illness in Patients With COPD and the Effectiveness of Influenza Vaccination

A Randomized Controlled Study

      Study objectives

      To determine the effectiveness of influenza vaccination on influenza-related acute respiratory illness (ARI) and overall ARI in patients with COPD, and its relationship to the degree of airflow obstruction.

      Design

      Stratified, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

      Setting

      From June 1997 to November 1998 at a single university hospital.

      Patients and interventions

      One hundred twenty-five patients with COPD were stratified based on their FEV1 as having mild, moderate, and severe COPD. Within each group, they were randomized to the vaccine group (62 patients who received purified, trivalent, split-virus vaccine) or the placebo group (63 patients).

      Measurements

      The number of episodes and severity of total ARI, classified as outpatient treatment, hospitalization, and requirement of mechanical ventilation; and the number of episodes and severity of influenza-related ARI.

      Results

      The incidence of influenza-related ARI was 28.1 per 100 person-years and 6.8 per 100 person-years in the placebo group and vaccine group, respectively (relative risk [RR], 0.24 [p = 0.005]; vaccine effectiveness, 76%). The incidences were 28.2, 23.8, and 31.2 per 100 person-years in the patients with mild, moderate, and severe COPD, respectively, in the placebo group, and 4.5, 13.2, and 4.6 per 100 person-years in the patients with mild, moderate, and severe COPD, respectively, in the vaccine group (RR, 0.16 [p = 0.06]; vaccine effectiveness, 84%; RR, 0.55 [p = 0.5]; vaccine effectiveness, 45%; and RR, 0.15 [p = 0.04]; vaccine effectiveness, 85%, in the patients with mild, moderate, and severe COPD, respectively). Bivariate analysis revealed that the effectiveness of influenza vaccination was not modified by the severity of COPD, comorbid diseases, age, gender, or current smoking status. There was no difference in the incidence or severity of total ARI between the placebo group and the vaccine group.

      Conclusions

      Influenza vaccination is highly effective in the prevention of influenza-related ARI regardless of the severity of COPD. Influenza vaccination does not prevent other ARIs unrelated to influenza. The effectiveness of influenza vaccination in the prevention of overall ARI in patients with COPD will depend on how much the proportion of influenza-related ARI contributes to the incidence of total ARI. Influenza vaccination should be recommended to all patients with COPD.

      Key words

      Abbreviations:

      ARI (acute respiratory illness), GMT (geometric mean titer), HI (hemagglutination inhibition), RR (relative risk)
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      Linked Article

      • Influenza Vaccination in Vulnerable Populations
        ChestVol. 125Issue 6
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          People with asthma and COPD are considered to be at risk for complications of influenza. This disease has been responsible for a major increase in morbidity and mortality during epidemic periods, especially in such patients. As early as 1848, the founder of modern concepts of medical surveillance, William Farr, estimated that 41% of the population of London died due to bronchitis or pneumonia.1 Each year, an average of 20,000 people die of influenza-related illness in the United States.2 Influenza and pneumonia were the seventh leading cause of death in 2000.
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