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Safety and Efficacy of Two Courses of OM-85 BV in the Prevention of Respiratory Tract Infections in Children During 12 Months

      Background

      Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are among the main causes of morbidity and mortality in children. The bacterial extract OM-85 BV (bronchovaxom) has shown protective effect for ARTIs on children. We report a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel, prospective clinical trial to assess the safety and efficacy of two courses of OM-85 BV in the prevention of ARTIs in susceptible children during 12 months.

      Methods

      Fifty-four susceptible children from 1 to 12 years of age living in the metropolitan area of Chihuahua City were selected. They were randomized to receive either OM-85 BV or placebo (one capsule a day for 10 days a month for 3 consecutive months) at the beginning of the trial and 6 months later with the same schedule. Patients were followed up for 12 months, including the administration period. The trial began in July 1997 and ended in April 1999.

      Results

      The number (mean ± SD) of ARTIs was 5.04 ± 1.99 (median, 5.0) in the OM-85 BV group vs 8.0 ± 2.55 (median, 8.0) in the placebo group, with a mean difference of − 2.96 (95% confidence interval [CI],−4.22 to − 1.7). The number of antibiotic courses was 2.46 ± 2.08 (median, 1.5) in the treatment group vs 4.46 ± 2.08 (median, 4.0) in the control group, a difference of − 2.0 (95% CI,− 3.14 to − 0.86). The total duration of ARTIs was 35.23 ± 17.64 days (median, 30.5 days) in the OM-85 BV group vs 60.75 ± 25.44 days (median, 55.0 days) in the placebo group, ie, a difference of − 25.52 days (95% CI, − 37.56 to − 13.47 days),p < 0.001 by Student’s t test and Mann-Whitney U test for all the items. Four patients in the OM-85 BV group had five adverse events. Only one episode of skin rash was related to the medication intake. Six patients in the control group had six adverse events.

      Conclusions

      OM-85 BV had a preventive effect on ARTI in the susceptible children for 12 months with an important reduction on the antibiotic requirements and the number of days of suffering ARTIs.

      Key words

      Abbreviations:

      ANOVA (analysis of variance), ARTI (acute respiratory tract infection), CI (confidence interval), IL (interleukin), RTI (respiratory tract infection)
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