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Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations

Screening Procedures and Pulmonary Angiography in Patients With Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

      Background

      Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a dominantly inherited disease with a high prevalence of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs). The first symptom of HHT may be stroke or fatal hemoptysis associated with the presence of PAVM.

      Objective

      To evaluate different screening methods applied for the identification of PAVMs.

      Setting

      Odense University Hospital.

      Subjects

      HHT patients with positive findings on contrast echocardiography (CE) who participated in a screening investigation and underwent pulmonary angiography (PA).

      Methods

      Different screening methods were evaluated against the results of PA. In a group of patients with positive findings on CE, we compared results of PA with the following: severity of dyspnea; results of pulse oximetry arterial oxygen saturation (Sao2) supine and upright; supine Pao2 in room air and while breathing 100% oxygen; size of arteriovenous shunt in supine position; chest radiograph; and intensity of contrast at CE.

      Results

      PA was performed in 25 HHT patients with positive findings on CE, 15 of whom had PAVM. Embolization therapy was recommended in 12 patients, and 3 patients had small PAVMs not accessible for therapy. In 10 patients, PAVM could not be demonstrated at PA. The sensitivity and specificity calculated for the screening procedures are as follows: 53% and 90%, respectively, for Sao2; 60% and 100%, respectively, for chest radiograph; 73% and 80%, respectively, for Pao2 in room air; 100% and 40%, respectively, for Pao2 breathing 100% oxygen; and 64% and 80%, respectively, for shunt measurement.

      Conclusion

      Initial screening with CE followed by measurement of Pao2 while breathing 100% oxygen seemed to be the best screening procedure for identification of patients with PAVM. Screening with chest radiograph and pulse oximetry was shown to be insufficient.

      Key words

      Abbreviations:

      CE (contrast echocardiography), HHT (hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia), NYHA (New York Heart Association), PA (pulmonary angiography), PAVM (pulmonaryarteriovenous malformation), Sao2 (arterialoxygen saturation)
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